Opioids drive continued increase in drug overdose deaths

Drug overdose deaths increase for 15th consecutive year

Drug overdose deaths increased for the 15th consecutive year in 2014, according to an analysis from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The findings were published recently in a research letter, “Pharmaceutical Overdose Deaths, United States, 2014,” in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).
CDC’s analysis shows that 38,329 people died from a drug overdose in the United States in 2014, up from 37,004 deaths in 2009. This continues the steady rise in overdose deaths seen over the past 15 years, starting with 16,849 deaths in 1999. Overdose deaths involving opioid analgesics have shown a similar increase. Starting with 4,030 deaths in 1999, the number of deaths increased to 15,597 in 2009 and 16,651 in 2014.
In 2014, nearly 60 percent of the drug overdose deaths (22,134) involved pharmaceutical drugs. Opioid analgesics, such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, and methadone, were involved in about 3 of every 4 pharmaceutical overdose deaths (16,651), confirming the predominant role opioid analgesics play in drug overdose deaths.
CDC researchers analyzed data from CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics 2010 multiple cause-of-death file, which is based on death certificates.
The researchers also found that drugs often prescribed for mental health conditions were involved in a significant number of pharmaceutical overdose deaths. Benzodiazepines (anti-anxiety drugs) were involved in nearly 30 percent (6,497) of these deaths; antidepressants in 18 percent (3,889), and antipsychotic drugs in 6 percent (1,351). Deaths involving more than one drug or drug class are counted multiple times and therefore are not mutually exclusive.
“Patients with mental health or substance use disorders are at increased risk for nonmedical use and overdose from prescription painkillers as well as being prescribed high doses of these drugs,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, M.D., M.P.H. “Appropriate screening, identification, and clinical management by health care providers are essential parts of both behavioral health and chronic pain management.”
Additional steps are being taken at the national, state and local levels, as well as by non-governmental organizations, to help prevent overdoses from prescription drugs.
In particular, the federal government is:
• Tracking prescription drug overdose trends to better understand the epidemic.
• Encouraging the development of abuse-deterrent opioid formulations and products that treat abuse and overdose.
• Educating health care providers and the public about prescription drug abuse and overdose.
• Requiring that manufacturers of extended-release and long-acting opioids make educational programs available to prescribers about the risks and benefits of opioid therapy, choosing patients appropriately, managing and monitoring patients, and counseling patients on the safe use of these drugs.
• Using opioid labeling as a tool to inform prescribers and patients about the approved uses of these medications.
• Developing, evaluating and promoting programs and policies shown to prevent prescription drug abuse and overdose, while making sure patients have access to safe, effective pain treatment.
Promising steps that many states are taking include:
• Starting or improving prescription drug monitoring programs, which are electronic databases that track all prescriptions for opioids in the state.
• Using prescription drug monitoring programs, public insurance programs, and workers’ compensation data to identify improper prescribing of opioids.
• Setting up programs for public insurance programs, workers’ compensation programs, and state-run health plans that identify and address improper patient use of opioids.
• Passing, enforcing and evaluating pill mill, doctor shopping and other state laws to reduce prescription opioid abuse.
• Encouraging state licensing boards to take action against inappropriate prescribing.
• Increasing access to substance abuse treatment.

Prescription Drug Overdose in the United States: Fact Sheet

Deaths from drug overdose have been rising steadily over the past two decades and have become the leading cause of injury death in the United States.1 Every day in the United States, 114 people die as a result of drug overdose1, and another 6,748 are treated in emergency departments (ED) for the misuse or abuse of drugs.2 Nearly 9 out of 10 poisoning deaths are caused by drugs.3
The Problem
Drug overdose was the leading cause of injury death in 2012. Among people 25 to 64 years old, drug overdose caused more deaths than motor vehicle traffic crashes.1
Drug overdose death rates have been rising steadily since 1992 with a 117% increase from 1999 to 2012 alone.1
In 2012, 33,175 (79.9%) of the 41,502 drug overdose deaths in the United States were unintentional, 5,465 (13.2%) were of suicidal intent, 80 (0.2%) were homicides, and 2,782 (6.7%) were of undetermined intent.1
In 2011, drug misuse and abuse caused about 2.5 million emergency department (ED) visits. Of these, more than 1.4 million ED visits were related to pharmaceuticals.2
Between 2004 and 2005, an estimated 71,000 children (18 or younger) were seen in EDs each year because of medication overdose (excluding self-harm, abuse and recreational drug use).4
Among children under age 6, pharmaceuticals account for about 40% of all exposures reported to poison centers.5
Most Common Drugs Involved in Overdoses
In 2012, of the 41,502 drug overdose deaths in the United States, 22,114 (53%) were related to pharmaceuticals.6
Of the 22,114 deaths relating to pharmaceutical overdose in 2012, 16,007 (72%) involved opioid analgesics (also called opioid pain relievers or prescription painkillers), and 6,524 (30%) involved benzodiazepines.6 (Some deaths include more than one type of drug.)
In 2011, about 1.4 million ED visits involved the nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals. Among those ED visits, 501,207 visits were related to anti-anxiety and insomnia medications, and 420,040 visits were related to opioid analgesics.2
Benzodiazepines are frequently found among people treated in EDs for misusing or abusing drugs.2 People who died of drug overdoses often had a combination of benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics in their bodies.6
259 million | Health care providers wrote 259 million prescriptions for painkillers in 2012, enough for every American adult to have a bottle of pills. CDC Vital Signs www.cdc.gov/VitalSignsCosts
In the United States, prescription opioid abuse costs were about $55.7 billion in 2007.7 Of this amount, 46% was attributable to workplace costs (e.g., lost productivity), 45% to healthcare costs (e.g., abuse treatment), and 9% to criminal justice costs.7
Risk Factors for Drug Overdose
Among those who died from drug overdose in 2012:
Men were 59% more likely than women to die;
Whites had the highest death rate, followed by American Indians/Alaska Natives and then blacks;
The highest death rate was among people 45-49 years of age; and
The lowest death rates were among children less than 15 years old because they do not abuse drugs as frequently as older people.1
Among people who misused or abused drugs and received treatment in emergency departments in 2011:
56% were males;
82% were people 21 or older.2

Drug Addiction Seen as ‘Moral Failing,’ Survey Finds

People with drug addiction are much more likely to face stigma than those with mental illness because they’re seen as having a “moral failing,” according to a new survey.

The poll of more than 700 people across the United States also found that the public is less likely to approve of insurance, housing and employment policies meant to help people with drug addiction.

The study results suggest that many people consider drug addiction a personal vice rather than a treatable medical condition, according to the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health researchers.

“While drug addiction and mental illness are both chronic, treatable health conditions, the American public is more likely to think of addiction as a moral failing than a medical condition,” study leader Colleen Barry, an associate professor in the department of health policy and management, said in a Hopkins news release.

“In recent years, it has become more socially acceptable to talk publicly about one’s struggles with mental illness. But with addiction, the feeling is that the addict is a bad or weak person, especially because much drug use is illegal,” she added.

The survey revealed that only 22 percent of people would be willing to work closely on a job with someone with a drug addiction, while 62 percent said they would do so with a person with a mental illness.

Sixty-four percent of respondents said employers should be able to refuse to employ people with a drug addiction, while 25 percent said the same about people with a mental illness. Forty-three percent of respondents said people with drug addiction should not be given the same health insurance benefits as the general public, while 21 percent felt the same about those with mental illness.

About 30 percent of respondents believed that recovery from either drug addiction or mental illness is impossible, according to the study in the October issue of the journal Psychiatric Services.

“The more shame associated with drug addiction, the less likely we as a community will be in a position to change attitudes and get people the help they need,” study co-author Beth McGinty, an assistant professor in the department of health policy and management at Hopkins, said in the news release.

“If you can educate the public that these are treatable conditions, we will see higher levels of support for policy changes that benefit people with mental illness and drug addiction,” she added.

How Bad is Heroin Use in the United States? The Facts

We have been hearing about heroin all over the United States, but never in one nice big number. Everything reads based on city or state. What we want to take a look at is how bad the heroin use really is across the board.

Here are the numbers on heroin use in the US. According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health: In 2012 about 669,000 Americans reported using heroin the past year. Which if I know anything about heroin, means they are probably addicted, or at least the majority are. There are very few individuals who only use heroin once.

This number, 669,000 is rising and has been since 2009. The “trend” appears to be driven by young adults, aged 18-25. There has been the biggest increase in use among those in this age group. Along with that the number of people using heroin for the first time is appallingly high. 156,000 people started using heroin in 2012 and probably still are. That number is double the number of people in 2006 who tried it for the first time.

And while these numbers are rising steadily, the numbers are actually declining for those aged 12-17. In the past year, heroin use among the Nations 8th, 10th and, 12th graders is at its lowest levels in the history of the survey. Less than 1% of those surveyed in all grades had tried heroin in 2013. Which has been a steady decline since 2005.

So what about addiction? Well, the number of people meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria for dependence or abuse of heroin doubled from 214,000 in 2002, to 467,000 in 2012. Data on what these numbers look like now and where these numbers reach hasn’t been released yet.

The impact of heroin use is huge. It is identified as being one of the biggest drug issues across several local regions from coast to coast. The rising harm associated with heroin use at the community level was presented in a report produced by the NIDA Community Epidemiology Work Group. The CEWG is comprised of researchers in areas across the United states and selected foreign countries that provide community level surveillance of drug abuse and its consequences or emerging trends. And heroin is taking the cake right now.

Heroin use is no longer found only urban areas. Heroin use in the US has spread into suburban and rural communities near Chicago and St. Louis. Heroin use is also on the rise among young adults in the areas. Individuals in the young adult age range, 18-25, are seeking treatment for heroin addiction or heroin abuse more now too. The numbers increased from about 11% in 2008 to 26% in the first half of 2012.

Nineteen Drug Facts that will Blow your Mind!

Heroin, heroin, heroin. It is all we are hearing about. In the midst of all the heroin overdoses we need not forget about the other drugs. They are running rampant among Americans, young and old. They kill more people than heroin. And some of them are even legal. Forget about heroin for a second and come with us on the journey towards the next 19 crazy drug facts that will blow your mind.

1. So heroin is an epidemic right? Well check out these numbers. 70 million Americans are taking LEGAL mind-altering drugs right now.

2. The prescription drug epidemic is still upon us even with the recent crackdowns. According to the CDC, doctors wrote more than 250 million prescriptions for antidepressants in 2010.

3. Oh and it gets just a tad bit more shocking. According to a study done by the Mayo Clinic, nearly 70% of all Americans are on at least one prescription drug. And a 20 percent of all Americans are on AT LEAST FIVE prescription drugs.

4. Where’s all the money going? Well, Americans spent more than 280 billion dollars on prescription drugs in 2013. Big pharma means big money.

5. It affects everyone. According to the CDC, approximately 9 out of 10 Americans that are at least 60 years old say that they have taken at least one prescription drug within the last month.

6. Oh and we can’t forget about alcohol. There are 60 million Americans that “abuse alcohol.” That means there are 60 million Americans who are not drinking alcohol they way they should be drinking it.

7. And illegal drugs? Well, according to the Department of Health and Human Services, 22 million Americans use (present day) illegal drugs.

8. Worried yet. Just wait. More than 11% of all Americans that are 12 years of age or older admit that they have driven home under the influence of alcohol at least once during the past year. What????

9. Back to overdose. According to the CDC, there is an unintentional drug overdose DEATH, in the US every 19 minutes. So while you’re in the shower, on your lunch break, whatever, someone dies from a drug overdose and someone else will 20 minutes after that.

10. More money issues. According to Alternet, “11 of the 12 new-to-market drugs approved by the FDA were priced above 100,000 dollars per patient per year” in 2012. Excuse me?

11. They are spending all that money to have adverse reactions too. According to the CDC, approximately three quarters of a million people a year are rushed to emergency rooms in the United States because of adverse reactions to pharmaceutical drugs.

12. And if you thought heroin was bad..In the United States today, prescription painkillers kill more Americans than heroin and cocaine combined. Probably because there are so many damn people taking them.

13. The percentage of women taking antidepressants in America is higher than in any other country in the world. Not that surprising…but still.

14. Many of these antidepressants contain warnings that “suicidal thoughts” are one of the side effects that should be expected. The suicide rate for Americans between the ages of 35 and 64 rose by close to 30 percent between 1999 and 2010. The number of Americans that are killed by suicide now exceeds the number of Americans that die as a result of car accidents every year. So more people are purposely killing themselves instead of on accident. Great.

15. In 2010, the average teen in the United States was taking 1.2 central nervous system drugs. Those are the kinds of drugs which treat conditions such as ADHD and depression. That means the average teen was high on speed, crack, meth, whatever you want to call it, the fact is they were on amphetamines.

16. A survey conducted for the National Institute on Drug Abuse found that more than 15 percent of all U.S. high school seniors abuse prescription drugs. This was my high school experience. Was it yours?

17. It turns out that dealing drugs is extremely profitable. The 11 largest pharmaceutical companies combined to rake in approximately $85,000,000,000 in profits in 2012. Just read that very large number out loud. How do you feel?

18. Children in the United States are three times more likely to be prescribed antidepressants as children in Europe are. And just a heads up people, pills don’t fix the problem they only cover up symptoms of it. Pills are not solutions which is exactly what the pharma companies make money off of, not making you better, just covering up the fact that you aren’t well. If you get well, they don’t get paid.

19. In America today, doctors are trained that there are just two potential solutions to any problem. Either you prescribe a pill or you cut someone open. Surgery and drugs are pretty much the only alternatives they offer us.

Think about this for a while, then get off your Duff and do something about it.

The Ugly Truth: Why Everyone is Dying From Heroin (Hint: It’s Not Because of Fentanyl)

It’s an ugly truth.
Give an addict heroin and there is a chance they will die. Not because of fentanyl. But because they are an addict that is doing heroin.

Just an update, Philip Seymour Hoffman’s bag of dope didn’t have fentanyl in it. It wasn’t even too much. He was just an addict on a day that ended with the letter ‘y’. That is why he died.

37 deaths in Maryland. An abnormally large amount of deaths in Pittsburgh. Deaths in South Florida. People dying all the time from “drug overdose.” And it all has been chalked up to heroin, not just heroin though, heroin cut with fentanyl. A special potent mixture that leads to overdose and death.

We have heard so much about heroin cut with fentanyl, not only is it kind of getting obnoxious, but we all seem to have forgotten that heroin in and of itself is kind of problem. Hello!!

Forget the shit labeled Theraflu. Forget the marked baggies. Forget the relapse and tolerance crap. Just in case anyone has forgotten, heroin, all by its pretty little china white, beige or brown self, can cause you to draw in and out your last breaths on this awesome planet. All it has to be is that extra .1 or .2 (or maybe you ball hard and do a whole extra 1.0) and that does the trick.

Or maybe, just maybe, here is the kicker; It doesn’t even have to be extra at all, it could just be the next shot for no reason other than the fact that you are doing heroin. YOU ARE DOING HEROIN! And quite possibly can’t stop even if you want to. People die all the time from just good ‘ol heroin in its regular uncut form, merely because they were doing a drug that can potentially kill you. You just don’t hear about it because its usually some average guy or girl, not a celebrity, who dies alone, without 36 other deaths to make their passing newsworthy.

Heroin, in and of itself, without being too much, without needing fentanyl, without a low tolerance, IS DANGEROUS. Heroin is going to keep killing people as long as there are people doing heroin. No one has to overdose and do too much, they just have to use the stuff. This is the truth, especially for addicts. Anyone, absolutely anyone, who is using heroin runs the risk of dying, regardless of tolerance, regardless of what it is or isn’t cut with, and regardless of how experienced they are. People die because they are addicted to a drug and the risk of dying from it is there every time they decide they want to feel better, numb out, get high, whatever. The thought of death either never enters their mind, is immediately pushed out by the desire to get high, or is ignored with an invincibility idea that you get when you haven’t overdosed yet (“It can’t happen to me.”) Maybe the idea that they could die does enter their mind, but it means nothing when you are an addict. The facts are, that death from heroin can happen just because you’re a human being that did heroin. Forget the overdose part of it all together.

But how?

Heroin is a potent opiate analgesic. And the disease of addiction is one that will screw with you until you’re in your grave, jail, or have decided to change your life and get sober (and even then there needs to be constant progress.) Put that combo together and you don’t need the term overdose. You might not even need the term addiction in all reality. All you really need, to die, is heroin.

Heroin not only blocks your brain from being able to register pain, it also suppresses things like your breathing while slowing your heart rate. It is a depressant. Think slow, think sloth, think sleepy. That is what heroin does. It numbs you out and slows you down, get a little too slow, and you might just stop. The heart can slowly stop beating. The lungs can slowly stop inflating and deflating. It is really simple. And it doesn’t have to be a cocktail of crap mixed with heroin to cause it. Heroin does this by itself, even in small amounts. Every time an addict uses heroin this is what happens, and the next time they decide they want to get high, could be the time their body decides to stop instead of keep on keeping on. There doesn’t need to be a bigger reason or explanation behind it. Heroin is dangerous every single time you do it just because it’s heroin. People are NOT going to stop dying. Because people are still using heroin. And the majority of people are still using heroin because their addiction tells them need to. That my friend, is the ugly truth.